We can use the energy of the sun for different purposes. One of them is the production of electrical energy. When solar cells are used, the energy of the sun is directly converted into electrical energy, namely “photoelectric effect”. The use of solar electricity has many advantages: it is a clean, quiet, and reliable source of energy. For the first time, photovoltaic batteries were used in space on satellites. Today, solar electricity is widely used in many areas. In remote areas where there is no centralized power supply, solar panels are used to supply electricity to individual houses, to raise water, and cool medicines. These systems often use batteries to store electricity generated during the day. In addition, calculators, telecommunication systems, buoys, etc. operate on solar electricity.
Another area of application is the power supply for houses, offices, and other buildings in places where there is a centralized power supply network. In recent years, this kind of application supplies about 90% of the market of solar modules. In the overwhelming majority of cases, solar panels work in parallel with the network and generate clean electricity for the networks of centralized power supply. In many countries, there are special mechanisms for supporting solar energy, such as special higher tariffs for the supply of electricity from solar panels to the grid, tax incentives, incentives for obtaining loans for the purchase of equipment, etc. At the stage of the formation of photovoltaics, such mechanisms operated in Europe, the USA, Japan, China, India, and other countries.
Solar modules or panels consist of several components, the main of which is a photoelectric or solar cell. Photoelectric converters (or English “solar cells”) - semiconductor devices that convert the energy of solar rays (solar radiation) into electric current. There are many ways to convert solar energy into electrical energy, while technologically they can vary very much - both by physical principles and by the technical implementation. The most effective - both from the point of view of production organization and economic energy feasibility - are devices using photoelectric semiconductor converters (FEP) for the conversion of solar energy, whose main advantage is a single-step direct energy transfer. Reviewing the modern commercial market of ground-based systems, the overwhelming share (about 80-85% of the total volume of the world market) accounts for crystalline silicon elements. A much smaller percentage is made up of thin-film solar cells (for example, CdTe), about 10%. Therefore, below we will consider the production of crystalline silicon photo converters, as the most demanded by the alternative energy market component of solar batteries.