1. Set of solar PV modules – their target is to convert sunlight into electricity.
2. Charge controller – serves for efficient battery charging or switching between power sources in use. The controller decides which energy source the system will use – sun, wind or public grid.
3. Batteries – required to store surplus electricity, for later use at night when solar panels are not working. In some cases there is no need to use batteries, for instance, in systems which use all electricity immediately it is inappropriate or too expensive to store power.
4. AC/DC Inverter – serves for converting direct current of solar panels or batteries into alternating current, used in most household appliances.
5. Other equipment – wires, connections, mounting brackets, temperature sensors, etc.
The right combination of these elements in accordance with the systems purpose is very important. The right configuration helps to boost the system’s capacity and reduce its cost.
In some cases, you can do without using a controller, inverter or batteries:
- For example, when generating solar energy in large volume in industrial power plants - for a plant or a small village, all electricity produced is supplied directly to the general network, and its accumulation is not advisable, so batteries and controllers are not needed.
- If your task is simply to illuminate the garden area or the garage, where you can use 12V diode lamps, you can also do without an inverter.
Scheme of solar power station for home use: